Friday, June 5, 2015

New Airchecks - June 6, 2015

The first two airchecks from Atlanta are now online and ready for download. The first is from WQXI 790 Atlanta, GA, recorded in September 1988. It was shortly after the station dropped its Oldies format for a Gold-based AC format, simulcasting WQXI-FM 94.1 (now WSTR, "Star 94") Smyrna. This is the first clip of a station broadcasting in AM Stereo on this archive.

The second one is from a station that adopted a Christian Adult Contemporary format shortly after I moved from the St. Louis area, WFTD 1080 Marietta, GA was owned by Pneuma Foundation, Inc. ("Pneuma" is Greek for "spirit", as in the Holy Spirit) from 1988 to 1998. The format was fed from Skylight Radio Network in Minneapolis, MN. I worked at WFTD from April 1989 to April 1992.

Two more St. Louis area airchecks have been added. I apologize for the terrible condition of the tape I re-dubbed it from back in 2000, but the aircheck of WJBM-FM 104.1 Jerseyville, IL features the tail end of the Bluegrass show (some of the tunes could also qualify for Classic Country) and the start of "Ed and Alice's Oldies Show". This was originally recorded in 1985, before the station became WKKX. In 1994, the station was involved in a frequency swap with WKBQ 106.5 Granite City, moving WKBQ's Top 40 format to 104.1 and WKKX's Country format to 106.5. It's a Hip-Hop station today as WHHL ("Hot 104").

The other one is KCFV 89.5 Ferguson, MO, recorded in the summer of 1985. The disc jockey on this clip, Kevin Vetter, grew up two doors from my original QTH in Hazelwood. I worked with Kevin at KCFV from 1985 to 1988, followed by a second tour of duty from 1992 to 1995. The station was experimenting with a CHR format under the direction of Joe Sonderman, before the station slowly reverted back to a College Rock format by the fall of 1986. KCFV returned to a CHR format in 2004.

In addition, there's one aircheck from Pittsburgh, the Steel City in the archive, that being WLTJ 92.9, obtained in an aircheck trade with DXer Chris Cuomo. Markets that will be featured soon: Chattanooga, TN (my listening posts on the Cobb-Cherokee County line in Georgia were 75 miles from there), Portland, OR (from trips in 1985 and 1988) and Chicago, IL (most obtained through aircheck trades with promo collector Mark Strickert).

As we all say...more to come!

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

New Airchecks from Eric's Airchecks - June 3, 2014

Four rare airchecks are now available for download from my aircheck archive on Box. The first one is a 1984 aircheck from KRSH 90.1 Overland, MO, which includes play-by-play of a basketball game between the Huskies of Ritenour High School and the Stars of McCluer North High School. The halftime entertainment? Two songs from Van Halen; one of the songs going out to listeners near Hazelwood West High School. When the station signed on the air in the early 1970s, the calls stood for Ritenour Senior High. The station is now KRHS, for Ritenour High School, and is part of the media setup at the school, located along St. Charles Rock Road. It's a 10-watt FM that now broadcasts 24 hours a day during the academic year.

Another rarity is this 1985 aircheck from KWMU 90.7 St. Louis, MO. This was at a time when the studios were on the campus of the University of Missouri-St. Louis, and they were running Classical music during the day and Jazz at night. The Jazz featured on the station in this recording were releases from the early 1980s. The station now only runs a few hours of Jazz a week; otherwise, it broadcasts a News/Talk format on its main channel, confining Classical music to its coverage-limited HD2 channel.

One very rare station was the St. Louis FM pirate that was on the air in the early 1980s, KKLO on 99.7 MHz. The frequency was eventually assigned to Hillsboro, IL, where it's today's WXAJ with CHR as "99-7 Kiss FM". KKLO had a playlist of hits from the 1960s and early 1970s on this recording; the station DID NOT identify during the time I recorded them. Pirate KKLO also ran some comedy cuts, including the infamous "And now, a message from the Swedish Prime Minister" followed by applause and nothing else. The recording had to be split into two parts, with Part One on one file and Part Two on another MP3 file. KKLO was busted by the Federal Communications Commission in 1985. The calls were eventually assigned to an AM radio station on 1410 kHz in Leavenworth, KS.

More to come in the coming weeks! The St. Louis airchecks can be accessed here.

Friday, May 22, 2015

States You May Have Never Logged Before

As with most of us DXers here in the United States, I like to keep track of the number of U.S. states I've heard on AM, FM, TV (digital and analog) and NOAA Weather Radio. Being in the middle of the country does have some advantages, while it has some disadvantages.

On the AM broadcast band, for example, I began the DX season of 2014-15 with no AM stations in my logbook from New Mexico. I logged 18 FM stations, three analog TV stations and one NOAA Weather Radio station before the start of the AM broadcast band DX season. As I write this, the AM broadcast band DX logbook from The Land of Enchantment is now at three. In November, I caught KKIM 1000 in Albuquerque (yes, the city where Bugs Bunny forgets to make that left turn) operating at night on 10,000 watts daytime power. The signal was, at times, taking out WMVP (Chicago). Later that same month, I also caught KHAC 880 Tse Bonito (on the border with Arizona) operating on day power and pattern, giving WIJR (Highland, IL) and WCBS (New York) a run for the money. Off-season, I caught KCKN 1020 in Roswell on day pattern on May 21 at 0155 CDT (0655 UTC) giving KDKA (Pittsburgh, PA) a run for the money. On the AM broadcast band, there are no stations in my logbook from Delaware, Idaho, Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont. A lot of DXers would say that my best bet for Idaho is KBOI 670 in Boise, but with my location being 255 miles (as the crow flies) from Chicago, and that Cuba also gives The Score a good run for the money, KBOI is probably an impossible catch from the St. Louis area. I don't see any realistic chance to hear the other unheard states unless at least one station in each state puts on a DX test. It's through DX tests that AM stations from Oregon, Rhode Island and the state of Washington are in my logbook. I simply don't see any realistic chance of hearing Alaska and Hawaii from the St. Louis area, given the distance from those two states. I've only heard Hawaii on shortwave, and have not heard Alaska on any band. I'll be happy with just the "Lower 48".

Speaking of the "Lower 48", the only states I have not heard on the FM band from my listening post in Hazelwood, MO (15 miles NW of St. Louis) are California and West Virginia. I'm within single-hop range of some of the desert towns, such as Needles and Blythe; El Centro may be a stretch. I'm easily within double-hop range of the coastal cities (especially San Francisco). Only AM and shortwave signals have been heard from the Golden State. West Virginia, by contrast, presents several other challenges. Part of that state is in the National Radio Quiet Zone. FM stations are required to restrict coverages in that area to protect radio astronomy interests from interference. The western part of the state is within tropo distance; most notably Huntington, Parkersburg and Wheeling. Charleston may be stretching it a bit. The eastern part of the state (Harper's Ferry, Martinsburg, Charles Town) is within E-skip range. While I have two analog TV stations (both from Huntington) and 11 AM stations in my logbook from "Almost Heaven", no FM station has entered my logbook from West Virginia.

Analog TV also presented some challenges. Before the transition to digital TV, I had locals on channels 2, 4 and 5. That made logging states like Maine on analog TV a real challenge. WLBZ Bangor, when it was in analog, was never logged due to local KTVI being parked there. Other states weren't logged because the lowest channel station in the state was either on high-band VHF or UHF. Analog TV stations weren't logged from Delaware, New Hampshire or New Jersey as a result. The lowest channel station, if my memory serves, in Delaware was on channel 14. The lowest channel stations in New Hampshire and New Jersey were both on channel 9. Before WWOR-TV moved its city of license from New York, NY to Secaucus, NJ, the lowest channel station in New Jersey was on 13 (non-commercial WNET Newark). Due to distance and channel placement, I also did not log California, Oregon or the state of Washington on analog TV from Hazelwood.

Digital TV seems to follow the same propagation characteristics as the analog counterpart, although I've received two states in digital (Maine and New Jersey) I never logged in analog format. I've logged WLBZ 2 Bangor, ME in digital format, along with WACP 4 Atlantic City, NJ. There have been close-in states to Missouri I have not yet logged in digital format, such as Minnesota, Oklahoma and Wisconsin. Digital TV from those two states will be logged eventually. I haven't yet pulled in a Nebraska digital TV station on tropospheric enhancement propagation., although I've pulled in KNOP 2 North Platte via E-skip propagation.

NOAA Weather Radio (162.400-162.550 MHz) also follows the same propagation characteristics. Given its high placement in the VHF spectrum, tropospheric enhancement is more common. The only close-in state to Missouri I have not yet logged a NOAA Weather Radio station from is Wisconsin. E-skip does reach this band on occasion; my first experience with E-skip on the NOAA Weather Radio band came in 2004, with the log of KHB38 162.400 Atlantic City, NJ. This type of propagation also allowed me to log Arizona, New Mexico, Pennsylvania and Virginia on the NOAA Weather Radio band. The latter two states could also provide some tropospheric enhancement logs at some point, especially from western Pennsylvania and the Virginia panhandle.  

In the 23 years since I returned to the St. Louis area from the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains northwest of Atlanta, GA, I've discovered several things about my present location. New England is a lot easier to hear via E-skip on the FM band as it is on the AM broadcast band. I've only heard five stations from that region: three from Massachusetts (all from the Boston area), one each from Connecticut (WTIC 1080 Hartford) and Rhode Island (a DX test from 1220 in Providence). The West Coast has been better heard on AM than on FM. At least once a year, the three former 1-A Clears from California (KFI 640 and KNX 1070 in Los Angeles, KNBR 680 in San Francisco) come in at Hazelwood. Three of the four AM stations I've logged from Washington and the lone AM in my logbook from Oregon have been logged thanks to DX tests. Oregon and Washington have also been logged on FM. The two Oregonians I've heard have been 98.7 in Nyssa via single-hop E-skip, and 101.9 in Portland via double-hop. The lone Washington state FM (94.1 in Clarkston) has been logged via single-hop E-skip.

Some states have been logged via more than one mode of propagation. On FM, for example, Georgia and North Carolina have been logged by three different modes of propagation (E-skip, tropospheric enhancement and meteor scatter). Utah has been logged on FM via E-skip and meteor scatter. Given my location, one part of a state can be heard or seen via tropospheric enhancement, while another part can be heard or seen via E-skip. Take Pennsylvania as an example. On analog TV, three stations have been logged via E-skip (two from Philadelphia and one from the State College area) and two via tropospheric enhancement (one from Erie and the other from Pittsburgh). Tropo is most common from the western part of the state, while E-skip is most common from the central and eastern parts of the Keystone State. Another example is South Dakota. The Rapid City area has been heard and seen via E-skip, while Sioux Falls and Aberdeen have been logged via tropospheric enhancement. One market has been logged by both tropospheric enhancement and E-skip: Pierre. I've logged two FMs via E-skip, a high-band VHF station via tropo, and a low-band VHF TV station by both propagation methods. Another market that has been logged by both tropospheric enhancement and E-skip is Buffalo, NY.

Getting back to AM broadcast band DX, the sun's position can also have an effect on DX. At one hour before local sunrise or one hour before local sunset, eastern AM stations tend to pop in over the closer-in stations. For example, I was on 610 one night in November 2014, and nulled out KCSP Kansas City, MO to hear CKTB Saint Catharines, ON. On 1060 at that time of day, I could conceivably hear WILB Canton, OH over closer-in WMCL McLeansboro, IL. One hour after sunrise and one hour after sunset is when you'll likely find western AM stations still on day power and/or pattern. For example, if you're parked on 1040, there's a chance you could hear KCBR Monument, CO with WHO Des Moines, IA nulled until about an hour after sunset. Again, it's dependent on your location. In the Midwest, the best time to try for those difficult-to-hear eastern states (especially those in New England) is around one hour before sunset or one hour before sunrise, depending on conditions, or one to two hours after sunset for the difficult-to-hear western states (such as Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah or Wyoming).

As I write this, I've logged 1,605 AM, 1,288 FM, 579 analog TV, 166 digital TV and 120 NOAA Weather Radio stations. Nobody knows what new stations and new states you will hear in the years to come.

New Aircheck Page

I've finally decided to put my aircheck collection into a separate Box account from my DX. In the coming months, I intend to digitize my aircheck collection, which I collected in trades and from the markets I've lived in (St. Louis, MO and Atlanta, GA) as well as places I've visited (like Portland, OR). The first two airchecks to be uploaded are both from 1989, WLTJ 92.9 Pittsburgh, PA and WSNL 101.1 East St. Louis, IL. Both of these airchecks are unscoped. All airchecks in the collection I am uploading are unscoped.

Stay tuned for more airchecks.

Friday, November 21, 2014

Taking Advantage of a Local Station's Silent Period

It's happened to all of us in the DX community before. A local station either goes completely silent, or decides to reduce its hours of operation. Most likely, this is purely for financial reasons. In the case of KFNS 590 (which is in the process of being sold to a Christian group as I write this), it's over nonpayment of debts. A station also stays silent during the course of a sale, which is also the case with KFNS (1,000 watts day and night with separate patterns for day and night operation). In the case of KXFN 1380, their reduction of operations is not only a purely financial move, it's also because of a loss of their nighttime transmitter site. Until the station flipped from female-centered talk to extreme talk, it was a 24-hour operation. When the station flipped to extreme talk, they cut back their operations to being on from 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. When the station lost the lease on its nighttime transmitter site, KXFN became a 5,000-watt daytime only operation (they operated at 1,000 watts at night, which misses most of the St. Louis metro area).  KXFN also utilized separate patterns for day and night operations.

Many DXers take advantage of the silence of a local station to try and pull in DX. In the case of the silence of KFNS, the dominant station on 590 at night becomes KXSP in Omaha, NE, which operates at 5,000 watts day and night with a non-directional antenna. The station has operated with the same facilities since they were WOW. Also received during the nighttime hours at my Hazelwood, MO location are two Michiganders, WJMS in Ironwood (on the Upper Peninsula) and WKZO in Kalamazoo (on the Lower Peninsula), along with KLBJ Austin, TX, XEPE Mexico City, Federal District, Mexico and Radio Musical from Cuba. During the hours before sunrise, a Midwesterner near St. Louis could hear WMBS Uniontown, PA with its Adult Standards format. The absence of a local on 590 also allows DX to come in on 580 and 600. On 600, one of the dominant stations at sunset into the early evening hours is WMT out of Cedar Rapids, IA. I've also heard WREC out of Memphis, TN, WSJS out of Winston-Salem, NC and the Cuban from Urbano Noris. One station on 600 I added to the log during KFNS' silence is WVAR in Richwood, WV. 580 is usually dominated by XEMU in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico at night, and WILL Urbana, IL during the daytime. Even with KFNS on the air, WIBW out of Topeka, KS makes it in at local sunset on 580. The DX possibilities could be endless while my local 590 (licensed to Wood River, IL) remains off the air during the sale.

Taking advantage of the reduction in operating hours of a local station is another way to add to your DX totals. Since KXFN 1380 began reducing hours, I've logged a number of stations on 1380. The dominant station at night is WLRM out of Millington, TN (a suburb of Memphis). Also noted at night on 1380: WVSA in Vernon, AL (along the border with Mississippi), WTJK in South Beloit, IL (on the Wisconsin border), KCNW in Fairway, KS (a suburb of Kansas City), KLIZ in Brainerd, MN and WHEW in Franklin, TN (a suburb of Nashville), along with WPYR out of Baton Rouge, LA. One station, KAGE in Winona, MN, was heard simulcasting an FM sister station (KWNO-FM 99.3 in nearby Rushford). WGNU 920 has a regular silent period on Saturday and Sunday; while WGNU is silent, KDHL in Faribault, MN is dominant, along with KARN in Little Rock, AR. I've also noted my ex-local on that frequency (as WAFS and WGKA) at my Hazelwood location. Other stations on 920 I've noted (regardless of whether WGNU is on or off) include KLMR in Lamar, CO, CFRY in Portage la Prairie, MB, KYST in Texas City, TX (a Houston suburb), as well as stations in Russellville, AL and Whitesburg, KY. 30 years ago, when the local on 550 (then KUSA) had a silent period, I would usually note KTSA San Antonio, TX dominating. Other times, I would hear KFYR in Bismarck, ND.

Since I returned to St. Louis in 1992, the local on 630 has been off the air for extended periods twice. During the first silent period in 1994 during the transition from KXOK to KJSL, I heard WBMQ in Savannah, GA, CFCO in Chatham, ON, CKRC in Winnipeg, MB, KSLR in San Antonio, TX and another station in Honduras. Since that time, CKRC has moved to the FM dial and WBMQ has cut night power from 1,000 watts to 47 watts. During the second silent period in 2013 during the transition from KJSL to KYFI, KSLR and CFCO were again noted, along with WNEG in Toccoa, GA, WREY in St. Paul, MN and XEFB in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. While the local on 630 has to protect KHOW in Denver, CO at night, it appears Denver also protects St. Louis; KHOW has not made it into the logbook at Hazelwood. Neither has WLAP in Lexington, KY (nor another Lexington station, WVLK 590).

Even FM stations have been off the air for extended periods of time, allowing DX to be pulled in. Three of Clear Channel Radio's (now iHeart Radio) St. Louis FM stations were knocked off the air after a derecho moved through St. Louis in July 2006. On 93.7, I was able to relog KTUF in Kirksville, MO, and added WTRX Pontiac, IL (now WJBC-FM) to the logbook. On 104.9, I added WFIW-FM in Fairfield, IL, KPWB-FM in Piedmont, MO and KBOE-FM in Oskaloosa, IA to my FM logbook. On 107.7, I added stations in Fairbury, IL, Otterville and Stockton, MO. From June of 1999 to the following June, WFUN-FM 95.5 was off the air for station upgrades and moving the studio from St. Ann to Olivette. E-skip conditions allowed me to log WPLJ in New York, as well as KYFO in Ogden, UT and KMBR in Butte, MT. Tropo conditions allowed me to log Chicago, Detroit, Indianapolis and Nashville, as well as WGLO in Pekin, IL and KAAN-FM in Bethany, MO.  

When one of your locals are off for whatever reason, take advantage of that station's silence and log some DX! 

Friday, August 15, 2014

A DXer's View of the Violence in Ferguson

One of the hobbies I have picked up in recent years is monitoring public service radio traffic, especially police radio traffic. Over the past week, my Radio Shack PRO-2052 has received a lot of radio traffic coming out of Ferguson. This is in relation to the violence that followed a police-involved shooting in that town that's made international news. I'm sure you may have heard this over the BBC (either on satellite, shortwave or your local BBC outlet) in recent days.

I have lived most of my life in Hazelwood; the only time I have not lived in Hazelwood was the four years I lived outside of Atlanta (Woodstock from 1988 to 1991, and Marietta in 1991-92). I still remember the time the verdict in the Rodney King beating case was handed down in 1992. The local TV stations had cut into programming for live coverage of the violence around Morehouse College and Clark Atlanta University; I still remember the afternoon drive DJ at Clark Atlanta's radio station (WCLK, 91.9 MHz), the late Ken Batie, making a plea for peace on the airwaves during his "Hot Ice" Contemporary Jazz show. Even WSB 750 had wall-to-wall coverage of the events in Atlanta back in 1992.

Never, in my wildest dreams, did I ever think something like this would happen close to home until last Saturday, when this shooting occurred. On Sunday, I had both of my TV sets on in the shack, tuned to two local stations. I switched back and forth between KMOV 24 (4), KSDK 35 (5) and KTVI 43 (2) for their coverage. Reminded of what happened 22 years ago down in Atlanta, I tuned into my old radio station, WFUN-FM 95.5, now known as "Old School 95.5". One of the DJs on the station is DJ Kut, whom I worked with at 89.5 KCFV back in the early to mid-1990s. Around 0142 CDT on August 11, I tuned my radio to Old School 95.5 and recorded more than 20 minutes' worth of programming for posterity. The recording included a message from St. Louis native Cedric the Entertainer (who grew up in nearby Berkeley) and a simulcast of KTVI's coverage of the violence. KMOX 1120 was nowhere to be heard as the violence was happening; they were running "Overnight America" instead of providing continuous coverage of what was going on. KTRS 550 was also missing, running "Red Eye Radio" instead of continuous coverage of the story. R&B radio came to the forefront as the events unfolded; local news/talk radio was, for the most part, absent.

I had my scanner on for several nights after that; the police helicopters flying over the area were using 154.725 MHz (used by several communities in northern St. Louis County, including Overland and Breckenridge Hills), later switching to 155.730 MHz (the Missouri Sheriffs' Net frequency). The latter frequency is close to the Hazelwood police frequency of 155.745 MHz. I also heard radio traffic on the frequencies used by St. Louis County Police (notably 155.655 MHz; the North County frequency is 155.130 MHz) and St. Ann Police (460.450 MHz), among others. Several municipalities in northern St. Louis County, including Dellwood, Jennings and nearby communities, use 155.550 MHz for dispatch and communications. Ferguson's police operations are primarily on 155.010 MHz. The law enforcement point-to-point frequency of 155.370 MHz has gotten quite a workout the last several days. I had even monitored the developments on satellite radio (I've been a Sirius-XM subscriber since 2007) via the BBC World Service and CBC Radio One; the story got coverage on the BBC World Service on August 11 (one of the people interviewed on that day was a reporter from KMOV). That night, the violence was covered on CBC Radio One's "The World at Six"; the first fifteen minutes of "As It Happens" that day was devoted to what was going on in Ferguson.

I began my broadcasting career in Ferguson nearly 30 years ago, at KCFV 89.5 MHz. I also spoke to the station's current General Manager, Paul Huddleston, on Tuesday (8/11) to talk about what's been going on. Neither of us knew, in our wildest dreams, that this would happen so close to home. I worked with Paul back in the early to mid-1990s at KCFV. A number of the air personalities on the station today are African-American; I'm sure they would have plenty to talk about, as far as the events that have unfolded are concerned. I worked with several African-Americans during my two tours of duty at KCFV; I retired in 2009 from a radio station which has a sizable African-American audience (WSIE, 88.7 MHz). None of us thought something like this would happen in Ferguson 30 or 20 years ago; not even three weeks ago.

I also talked about the events in Ferguson on the local Amateur Radio nets, starting with the Monday night net of the Lewis and Clark Radio Club (145.230 MHz, negative offset, PL tone 79.7 Hz); I also talked at length about it on the Tuesday night net of the St. Louis and Suburban Radio Club (146.850 MHz, negative offset, PL tone 141.3 Hz). The events in Ferguson were also on the minds of many in the local Amateur Radio community.

I was also reminded that Dellwood was the longtime home of the late DXer Terry Klasek. He probably would have been searching for coverage of these events on the few stations still on shortwave. A back room of his old QTH on Vickie Place was devoted to his radio endeavors. Having a tabletop scanner in my shack allows me to monitor the radio traffic coming out of the area. This was one piece of equipment another long-gone DXer, Rich Eddie, had in his shack in Webster Groves.

The events of the past week also reminds me of being prepared for the worst. As a member of St. Louis Metro ARES, I've taken part in several practice deployments. While the Amateur Radio community hasn't been called upon to provide backup communications for the riots (this is a rare occurrence), they were called upon when an EF2 tornado hit Hazelwood in April of 2013. Monitoring the police radio traffic from the relative safety of my shack, five miles from the epicenter of the violence, allows one to find out the basic information about what's going on before it appears on the local, national or international news.

During times of disaster or violence, it's an excellent idea to have a tabletop or handheld scanner within reach. (The picture below is of my shack, taken in June 2014.)


Thursday, June 26, 2014

Two State Milestones on FM: Florida #70 and Illinois #200

Every time I reach a milestone in my DX career, whether it be reaching a certain mark overall or a certain mark from a state, province or other political division, I tend to mark that in my logbook, especially when I report it to a DX club publication, such as IRCA's DX Monitor (of which I am Editor-in-Chief) or WTFDA's VHF-UHF Digest. During the month of June, I have reached two milestones on the FM band: the 70th FM station from the state of Florida, and the 200th FM station from the state of Illinois.

Coming into June, Illinois and my home state of Missouri were the only states I've received more than 100 FM stations from. My total from Illinois has stood at 199 since I logged W279AQ 103.7 Mascoutah (northeast of Belleville) in December 2013. It was well worth the wait for Illinois #200, when I logged the new WJKD 105.5 in Altamont (southwest of Effingham on I-70) on June 22 at 0300 CDT (0800 UTC). This is one of a number of FM stations that identify with the most common marketing name for the Adult Hits format, Jack. With KPNT on 105.7 (licensed to Collinsville) broadcasting in the failed "HD" system, I was lucky to pull this one through. With the 200th FM station from the Land of Lincoln now in the books, Illinois is in a club all to itself. The closest state to that is Missouri, with 173 FM stations heard. Missouri FM #175 can't be that far behind.

For the past few years, there has been a battle for third place in my FM logbook between the states of Florida and Iowa. The Sunshine State and the Hawkeye State have traded places several times in recent years; Iowa passed Florida to take over third place at 0356 CDT (0856 UTC) on the morning of September 1, 2013 with the log of KSOI 91.9 in Murray, near Osceola. Before that, Florida took over third place from Iowa on June 12, 2012 at 1956 CDT (June 13, 2012 at 0056 UTC) with the log of WBVD 95.1 Melbourne for the 60th Florida FM. On June 19, Florida once again took over third place from Iowa with the log of WJUF 90.1 Inverness at 1800 CDT (2300 UTC) with a legal ID mentioning the 89.1 outlet in Gainesville. Florida FM #70 was logged at 1902 CDT (June 20 at 0002 UTC) with WKLG 102.1 Rock Harbor, which features a Hot AC format and tourist-oriented ads for Miami and Key Largo. Florida and Iowa are the two closest to 100 logs now, although it'll be a while before they reach the 100 mark (FL is 30 stations away from 100, IA is 65 away). Texas is the one closest to the 50-station mark (three away), with Tennessee not far behind (five away from 50 FM stations). These marks could be met this year or next.

Florida is now my most productive E-skip state (69 of the 70 stations logged from FL have been via E-skip; only WKSM 99.5 Fort Walton Beach has been heard via tropo), while Illinois has been my most productive FM DX state overall (given my location in eastern Missouri, which favors the Land of Lincoln). More milestones lay ahead.